When Will The Universe End – Labda-CDM accelerated the expansion of the universe. The timeline in this schematic diagram spans from the Big Bang/Inflation Era to 13.7 billion years in cosmological time.
Observations show that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, meaning that the rate at which distant galaxies are receding from the viewer is increasing day by day.
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The University’s accelerated expansion was detected in 1998 by two independent projects, the Cosmology Supernova Project and the High-Z Supernova Search Group, which searches for distant Type Ia supernovae to measure the acceleration.
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Because Type Ia supernovae have about the same intrinsic brightness (one standard candle) and distant objects appear fainter, the observed brightness of these supernovae can be used to measure their distance. This distance can be compared to the cosmological redshift of supernovae, which measures how much the universe expanded after the supernova; Hubble’s Law said that the farther something is from us, the faster it recedes. It is intended that things in the universe recede from each other more rapidly; Because of the gravitational pull of matter in the universe, cosmologists hoped that the inertial velocity would always decrease. Three of the members of these two groups were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovery.
The rapid expansion of the universe is thought to have started about 5 billion years ago, when it revealed an epoch dominated by dark energy.
In the framework of general relativity, the accelerated expansion can be explained by a positive value of the cosmological constant, equal to the precursor of the positive energy of the vacuum, which is “dark force”. Although alternative explanations are possible, the (positive) dark energy explanation is used in Kurt’s Standard model of cosmology, which includes cold dark matter (CDM), and the model is called lambda-CDM.
The Big Bang model has become the most accepted model to explain the evolution of our universe. The Friedman equation defines how the force of the world drives its expansion.
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Where κ represents the curvature of the universe, a(t) is a scalar, ρ is the total energy density of the universe, and H is the Hubble parameter.
Curvature, matter, radiation and dark energy are the four main hypothesized contributors to the energetic nature of the universe.
Every part decreases with the expansion (scale factor) of the universe, except perhaps for dark energy. The values of these parameters are used by cosmological physicists to determine the acceleration of the universe.
Physicists were once so convinced of the slow expansion of the universe that they introduced an inertial parameter called q0.
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According to the theory of cosmic inflation, the universe first underwent a period of very rapid and quasi-exponential expansion. Although the duration of the expansion was much shorter than Kurt’s expansion, it was a fast expansion period with some similarities to Kurt’s times.
The definition of the “expansion acceleration” is that the second derivative of the cosmic factor, a }} is positive, which is equivalent to the negative retardation parameter q. However, this does not imply that the Hubble module increases with time. Since the Hubble parameter H(t) ≡ a (t) / a(t) }(t)/a(t)} is defined, the derivation of the Hubble parameter follows from the given definitions.
Therefore, the Hubble parameter decreases with time until q < 1. Observations favor q ≈ − 0.55, indicating that a }} is positive but d H/d t is negative. Essentially this implies that the cosmic regression velocity of any given galaxy is increasing over time, but the distance ratio of its velocity is still decreasing; Thus, the various galaxies expanding into a sphere of constant radius pass the sphere very slowly at later times.
Above it can be seen that “no acceleration/deceleration” corresponds to the linear dependence of a ( t ) on t , q = 0 , a = c o n s t }=const} and H ( t ) = 1 / t . .
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To investigate the expansion of a universe, we look at astronomical objects’ size-return relationships using standard candles or their distance-return relationships using standard deviations. We can also look at the evolution of large-scale structure and find that the observed values of cosmological parameters are best described by models that include rapid expansion.
In 1998, the first evidence of acceleration came from the observation of Type Ia supernovae, which are exploding white dwarfs that have crossed the stability limit. With all the same mass, the intrinsic luminosity is constant. Continuous imaging of selected regions of the sky is used to detect supernovae, following observations yielding maximum brightness, which is converted into a measurement called distance luminosity (see Distance Measurements in Astronomy for details).
For supernovae with redshifts less than 0.1 or light paths less than 10 Bergt in the age of the universe, this space yields an almost linear line from Hubble’s law. At large intervals, the distance-redshift relationship deviates from linearity because the rate of universe expansion changes with time, and this deviation depends on the ratio of the amount of expansion with time. The full calculation requires computer integration of the Friedman equation, but a simple derivation can be given as follows: Redshift z directly gives the cosmic momentum at the time of the supernova explosion.
The universe therefore implies a supernova with a measured redshift of z=0.5 = 1 / 1 + 0.5
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The supernova explosion is 2/3 the size of the explosion. In accelerated expansion, a }} is positive; It was therefore smaller than it is today. Thus, the accelerated universe took longer to expand from 2/3 to 1 times its disintegrated size, compared to the unaccelerated universe, with a constant a ˙ }} and the former value of the Hubble constant. This results in large light-time, large space, and faint supernovae that correspond to actual observations. Adam Rice et al. “The distances of high SNe Ia were, on average, 10% to 15% greater than expected in a universe of ΩM = 0.2 without the cosmological constant.”
This meant that the measured high-reinforced distances were much greater for the collapsed universe compared to the nearby ones.
Many researchers have questioned the major theory of acceleration or the assumption of the “cosmological principle” (the universe is homogeneous and isotropic).
For example, a 2019 study tabled an analysis of the light curve of Type I supernovae with t times the supernova composition used in the 1998 analysis and concluded that there was little evidence of a “monopole”. Acceleration is isotropic in all directions.
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Photons and matter existed in the primordial plasma before recombination and dissociation in the early universe. High-density spots of photon-baryon plasma are compressed by gravity until the pressure increases and they expand again.
These contraction and expansion vibrations in the plasma became similar to sound waves. Since dark matter only interacts with gravity, it relies on the water part of the sound, the origin of the original overdiskity. What separation occurred about 380,000 years after the Big Bang?
The images are separated from matter and can flow freely into the universe, creating a cosmic environment. This left a shell of baryonic matter at a certain radius of excess dark matter, called the acoustic horizon. Over time, as the universe expanded, galaxies began to form. Then, by looking at how close galaxies at different DD redshifts are to the cluster, a standard angular diameter distance can be determined and compared to the distance predicted by different cosmological models.
Peaks appear in the correlation function (probability that there are two galaxies at a given distance) at 100 h−1 Mpc.
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(where h is the Hubble non-vanishing constant) This indicates the size of the sound horizon today, and by comparing it to the sound horizon at the time of decoupling (using the CMB) we can confirm the rapid expansion of the universe.
A measure of galaxy cluster mass functions, which describes the number of cluster densities above a mass threshold.
Comparing these mass functions predicted by different cosmological models at high and low redshifts yields values for w and Ωm, confirming low matter density and non-zero dark matter energy.
A cosmological model, given certain values of the cosmological parameter DCity, can integrate the Friedman equations and obtain the age.
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