The Last King Of Poland – For other kings with similar names, see John of Poland (disambiguation). For his descendant, see John Sobieski (US Colonel).
Johannes III Sobieski (Polish: Jan III Sobieski; Lithuanian: Jonas III Sobieskis; Latin: Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death in 1696.
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Born into the Polish nobility, Sobieski studied at the Jagiellonian University and toured Europe in his youth. As a soldier, and later a commander, he fought in the Khmelnytsky Uprising, the Russo-Polish War and during the Swedish invasion known as the Flood. Sobieski demonstrated his military prowess during the war against the Ottoman Empire and established himself as a leading figure in Poland and Lithuania. In 1674 he was elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the sudden and unexpected death of King Michael.
Stanislaw Ii August Poniatowski. 1767 Portrait By Per Krafft. Stanislaw Ii Augustus, (stanislaw August Poniatowski, 1732
Sobieski’s 22-year reign was a period of stability for the Commonwealth, much needed after the chaos of previous conflicts.
He was popular with his subjects and was an able military leader, best known for his victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vina in 1683.
The defeated Ottomans called Sobieski the “Lion of Lehistan”, and the Pope hailed him as the savior of Western Christendom.
Sobieski later became ill and obese, and died in 1696 and was buried in the Wawel Cathedral in Krakow. He was succeeded by Augustus II of Poland and Saxony.
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Jovan Sobieski was born on August 17, 1629 in Oleski, now Ukraine, part of the Russian Duchy in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the distinguished family of Sobieshin Sobieski of Janina.
His father, Jakub Sobieski, was Duke Rutius and castellan of Krakow; his mother, Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz, was the granddaughter of Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski.
After graduating from the Bartłomiej Nowodworski College in Krakow in 1643, the young John Sobieski graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Krakow in 1646.
After completing his studies, John and his brother Marek Sobieski went to Western Europe, where he traveled for more than two years.
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During this time he met influential modern figures such as Louis II de Bourbon, Charles II of England and William II, Prince of Orange, and learned French, German and Italian as well as Latin.
Both brothers returned to the Commonwealth in 1648. When they learned of the death of King Władysław IV Vasa and the hostility of the Khmelnytsky rebellion, they volunteered for the army.
They established and commanded their banners (chorągiew) of cavalry (one light, “Cossack”, and one heavy, Polish hussars).
A promising commander, John was chosen by King John II Casimir as one of the delegates in Mikołaj Bieganowski’s diplomatic mission to the Ottoman Empire.
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He probably took part in the Battle of Okhmativ in 1655 as part of the Polish-Tatar allied forces.
After the beginning of the Swedish invasion of Poland, known as the “Flood”, John Sobieski was one of the greatest Polish rulers under the leadership of Krzysztof Opaliński, Palatine of Poznań who led Ujscie and swore allegiance to the Swedish King Karel X Gustav has.
However, at the end of March 1656, he left their side and returned to the side of the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa, under the command of Hetman Stefan Czarniecki and Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
He took part in several engagements over the next two years, including the siege of Toruń in 1658.
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In 1659 he was elected as a member of the Sejm (Polish parliament) and was one of the Polish mediators of the Hadijaz treaty with the Cossacks.
In 1660 he took part in the last battle against the Swedes in Prussia and was awarded the rank of Star of Struggle.
Soon after, he took part in the war against the Russians, in the Battle of Slobodišče and the Battle of Ljubar, and later that year he was one of the arbitrators of the new treaty with the Cossacks (Cudnovo Agreement).
Through personal connections he became a strong supporter of the Frch group at the Polish royal court, represented by Que Marie Louise Gonzaga. His pro-French allegiance was strengthened in 1665 when he married Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d’Arqui and was promoted to the rank of grand marshal of the crown.
Portrait Of Casimir Iii The Great, King Of Poland (1310 1370) The Last Polish King From The Piast Dynasty. Dated 14th Century Stock Photo
In 1662 he was re-elected as a member of the Sejm, and took part in the work on the reform of the army. He was also a member of the Sejm in 1664 and 1665.
Sobieski remained loyal to the king during the Lubomirski Rebellion of 1665-66, although it was a difficult decision for him.
He took part in the Sejm in 1665, and after some delay, on 18 May of that year, he accepted the prestigious post of Marshal of the Crown.
Around the end of April or the beginning of May 1666, he received another high office from the Commonwealth, that of Crown Hetman of Poland.
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Soon after, he was defeated in the Battle of Mątwy, and on 21 July he signed the Treaty of Łęgonica, which started the Lubomirski Rebellion.
In October 1667, he won another victory against the Cossacks Petar Doroško and their Crimean Tatar allies in the Battle of Podhajc during the Polish-Cossack-Tatar War (1666-71).
On February 5, 1668, he received the title of Grand Hetman of the Crown, the highest military rank in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, thus becoming the commander-in-chief of the Polish army.
Later that year he supported the French candidacy of Louis the Great Conde for the throne of Poland, and after this candidacy failed, Philip William, Elector Palatine.
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After the election of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, he joined the opposition group; he and his allies helped veto several fairs (including coronations), and his attitude once again caused him to lose popularity among the common nobility.
Although his pro-Frach stance in politics alienated some people, his military victory over the invading Tatars in 1671 helped him gain other allies.
In 1672, internal politics disrupted the Commonwealth, as Sobieski’s pro-Frach and the pro-King Michał faction formed two confederations, which, despite the massive Ottoman invasion of the south, seemed to care more about each other than uniting in defense of rebellions. Earth.
The judicial group called for the confiscation of his land and his removal from office, declaring him an “enemy of the state”.
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This division culminated in the humiliating Treaty of Bučak, where the Commonwealth was forced to cede territory to the Ottomans but promise an annual tribute.
Sobieski managed to balance politics and national defense, and a combination of his military victories against the invaders and successful negotiations in the Sejm in April 1673 led to a compromise in which the court group dropped the lawsuits and objections against him .
On November 11, 1673, Sobjeski added a major victory to his list, this time defeating the Ottomans at the Battle of Hotin and capturing the fortress there.
This made Sobieski one of the highest leaders of the government, and on 19 May of the following year he was elected King of the Commonwealth.
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His candidacy was almost universally supported, and only a few Diet members opposed him (mainly around the heads of the Lithuanian Pac family).
Due to the war, as a result of which Sobieski was in the front line, the coronation ceremony was significantly delayed – he was crowned John III almost two years later, on 2 February 1676.
The treasury was almost empty and the court had little to offer the powerful nobles, who often cooperated with foreign courts rather than the government.
Sobieski had several long-term plans, including establishing his dynasty in the Commonwealth, recovering lost territories, and strengthening the country through various reforms.
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One of his ambitions was to unite Christian Europe in the struggle to expel the Turks from Europe.
However, at the beginning of his reign, Poland was in dire financial straits and faced military threats from the north. King Louis XIV of France promised to broker peace between the Ottomans and Poland so that Sobieski would turn his attention to Prussia. The negotiations failed and Sobieski’s Baltic ambitions had to be tempered by the immediate reality of the Ottoman threat to the south.
In the autumn of 1674 he resumed the war against the Ottomans and was able to recapture a number of towns and fortresses, including Bratslav, Mogilev and Bar, and re-establish a heavily fortified line protecting Poland’s southern border in the Ukraine.
In 1676, the Tatars began to clash and cross the Dnieper, but they could not recapture the strategic town of Żurawno, so a peace agreement (Treaty of Żurawno) was signed soon after.
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Although Kamiec Podolski and most of Podolia remained part of the Ottoman Empire, Poland recovered the towns of Bila Cerkva and Pavoloch.
The treaty with the Ottomans started a period of peace that was much needed for the rehabilitation of the country and the strengthening of the royal power. Sobieski succeeded in completely reforming the Polish army.
The army was reorganized into regiments, the infantry finally gave up the pikes, replacing them with battle-axes, and the Polish cavalry adopted the hussar and dragoon forms.
Regaining control of this self-governing state was in the best interests of the Commonwealth, and that’s what Sobieski hoped for
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